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Meme warfare is all about propagation and in this pursuit, we use heuristics in determining if a meme propagates or dies. Heuristics are mental shortcuts or “rules of thumb” that simplify decision-making. They enable you to make quick judgments without having to analyze every detail of a situation. While heuristics can be incredibly useful for managing the vast amount of information we encounter daily, they can also lead to biases and errors in judgment. Some people call that an opportunity.

Heuristics. (hyoo-RIS-tiks) noun

  1. Methods or strategies in problem-solving that, while not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, are sufficient for reaching an immediate, short-term goal or approximation. These methods employ a practical approach when an exhaustive search is impractical.
  2. The study or practice of applying rules of thumb, educated guesses, intuitive judgments, or simplifying strategies to make decisions or solve problems.

Usage: “The use of heuristics in cognitive psychology helps understand how people make decisions with limited information and time.”

There are several kinds of heuristics, each serving different purposes in the decision-making process:

  1. Availability Heuristic: This involves estimating the likelihood of an event based on how easily examples of the event come to mind. If something can be remembered quickly, it’s considered more likely, and more believable. If a trader recently experienced several successful tech stock trades, they might overestimate the likelihood of success in future tech stock investments because those positive outcomes are easily recalled, influencing their perception of tech stocks as generally profitable. PAST PERFORMANCE DOES NOT INDICATE FUTURE SUCCESS.
  2. Representativeness Heuristic: This is used when making judgments about the probability of an event with uncertainty. It’s the tendency to assume that objects or events that share characteristics with the members of a particular category are themselves members of that category, sometimes leading to erroneous conclusions due to ignoring base rates and other statistical information. Seeing someone reading a financial publication and immediately thinking they must be a trader or analyst is an example of the representativeness heuristic. This judgment is based on the stereotype that traders and analysts read financial news, ignoring other possible professions or interests.
  3. Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic: This involves using an initial piece of information (the “anchor”) to make subsequent judgments. Once an anchor is set, decisions are then made by adjusting away from that anchor, which can lead to biased outcomes if the anchor is irrelevant or misleading. If a financial analyst mentions that a stock is expected to reach $100 and later you hear it might actually reach $80, you might still think $80 is high because your judgment is anchored to the initial $100 expectation, even if other data suggests it should be lower.
  4. Affect Heuristic: The affect heuristic is when emotional responses to stimuli are used as a basis to make quick judgments and decisions. Positive emotions towards an object or situation can lead to more favorable risk assessments and vice versa1. If a financial analyst feels optimistic about a new technology company because they’re excited about its innovation, they might downplay the risks and overestimate the company’s potential for success, using their positive emotions as a basis for investment decisions.
  5. Recognition Heuristic: This heuristic involves making a decision based on whether an object or situation is recognized. If one of two objects is recognized and the other is not, the recognized object is usually considered more important. If a trader recognizes one company’s stock because it’s frequently mentioned in the news but doesn’t recognize another, they might assume the well-known company is a safer or better investment, simply because it’s familiar, overlooking the potential of the lesser-known company.

Heuristics in Information Warfare

In modern psychological operations (psyops) and information warfare, heuristics play a role in influencing public opinion, decision-making processes, and behavior. Psyops often exploit heuristics to shape perceptions and attitudes, creating environments conducive to specific outcomes. Here’s how:

  • Exploiting Availability Heuristic: By repeatedly presenting information (true or false) across various platforms, operatives can make issues seem more prevalent or urgent than they are, influencing public concern or diminishing the perceived importance of critical issues.
  • Leveraging Representativeness Heuristic: Psyops may use stereotypical images or narratives that fit the target audience’s expectations to influence their perceptions of a group, event, or policy. This can lead to oversimplified and sometimes erroneous conclusions about complex issues.
  • Anchoring in Propaganda: In information warfare, initial information, even if false, can serve as an anchor. Subsequent discussions and opinions may be influenced heavily by these anchors, affecting public discourse and policy debates. This is setting Frame. Set the frame or narrative early. Do not let the enemy control the frame.
  • Affect Heuristic in Social Media: Emotional content is more engaging and shareable. By crafting messages or spreading information that triggers strong emotional responses (positive or negative), operators can sway public opinion and behavior more effectively than through neutral content.
  • Recognition Heuristic in Misinformation: Familiarity breeds acceptance. By repeatedly exposing targets to certain logos, slogans, or claims, even if they’re associated with misinformation, the recognition heuristic can lead to uncritical acceptance of false information (Repeating the memes).

In summary, heuristics are essential tools for navigating complex, information-rich environments and can be exploited in psyops and information warfare to manipulate behavior. Understanding how heuristics work and their vulnerabilities can help you develop offensive and defensive strategies for using heuristics in your psyops campaigns.

Wargame: Heuristics in Psychological Operations

Read this quick wargame that outlines an anti-Bitcoin wargame that utilizes heuristics.

Applying Heuristics

This table shows how heuristics in psychological operations can be applied and suggests broad strategies to counteract their potential manipulative effects. By understanding countermeasures, operators can better understand second and third order effects of their campaign.

Heuristic TypeUse in Psychological OperationsCountermeasuresAggressive Countermeasures
Availability HeuristicHighlighting specific events or information repeatedly across various media to make them seem more common or important, influencing public perception.Promote critical thinking and media literacy to encourage individuals to question the prevalence of information based on its availability. Diversify information sources to avoid over-reliance on specific narratives.Launch widespread guerrilla marketing campaigns that utilize alternative media, street art, or viral online content to challenge dominant narratives and present counter-information. Implement hacking to leak information that counters the manipulated statistics or events highlighted by the government.
Representativeness HeuristicUsing stereotypes or simplified models to influence perceptions and judgments about groups or situations, often leading to oversimplified conclusions.Educate on the complexity of issues, highlighting the dangers of stereotyping and the importance of considering base rates and broader statistical information. Encourage the examination of evidence before drawing conclusions.Organize and amplify targeted social media campaigns or mass mobilizations that showcase the diversity and complexity of misrepresented groups or situations, directly challenging stereotypes. Use deepfake technology responsibly to create content that undermines stereotypical narratives promoted by oppressors.
Anchoring and Adjustment HeuristicSetting an initial context or framework (anchor) for discussion, which can skew perception and judgment as subsequent information is interpreted relative to this anchor, even if it’s misleading.Teach the importance of recognizing initial information as potentially biased anchors and encourage the practice of seeking out additional, diverse viewpoints before forming opinions. Provide tools for re-evaluating initial assumptions.Engage in cyber operations to take over or disrupt official communication channels temporarily, replacing misleading anchors with factual information or questions designed to provoke critical thinking. Use satellite technology to broadcast uncensored news and information directly to the public.
Affect HeuristicCrafting messages that elicit strong emotional reactions to influence judgments and decisions, making positive or negative assessments based on feelings rather than analytical evaluation.Foster emotional awareness and resilience, training individuals to recognize when emotions might be unduly influencing their decisions. Encourage pausing to consider facts and evidence before acting on emotional responses.Coordinate large-scale public demonstrations that harness powerful, positive emotions such as hope and solidarity to counteract fear-based messaging. Develop viral memes or videos that use humor or satire to undermine emotionally manipulative propaganda.
Recognition HeuristicSpreading recognizable symbols, slogans, or misinformation to foster acceptance and familiarity, which can lead to uncritical acceptance of information or ideologies.Increase awareness about the influence of recognition on judgment, encouraging skepticism of familiar information without critical evaluation. Promote verification of recognizable information through reputable, independent sources.Create and popularize new symbols, slogans, and hashtags that become symbols of resistance, diluting the power of government-sponsored symbols. Implement AR (augmented reality) campaigns that overlay digital images or messages on government symbols, altering their context and meaning for viewers.

You can use the table above in two ways: to evaluate enemy tactics and how to counter them, and to understand how you can apply heuristics in operations and anticipate how the enemy might counter them. By understanding these tactics, you can develop strategies for the second and third order effects of applying heuristics in meme warfare.

The Operators & Heuristics

Each persona identified in the passage about meme warfare operators utilizes heuristics in distinct ways to influence and manipulate public perception, particularly within the context of Bitcoin versus conventional financial ideologies. Here’s how each might deploy heuristics in their meme warfare strategies:

1. Financial Analysts

Financial Analysts weaponize the Availability Heuristic through meme warfare by selectively highlighting negative Bitcoin events, such as market crashes or regulatory crackdowns, to make them seem more frequent and inevitable than they are. Their memes might juxtapose these events with stable returns from traditional investments, creating a biased narrative that Bitcoin is an excessively risky venture. By flooding social media with these selective narratives, they aim to skew public perception, making the risks of Bitcoin seem more prominent and available in the audience’s mind than the opportunities.

2. Government Officials or Agencies

Using the Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic, Government Officials or Agencies craft memes that set a negative anchor point for discussions about Bitcoin. They might release official-looking memes that question Bitcoin’s legality or its potential for facilitating illicit activities, setting a somber tone that influences all subsequent conversations. As these authoritative memes circulate, they become a reference point from which the public adjusts their perception of Bitcoin, often insufficiently away from the initial negative anchor, thereby fostering doubt and skepticism.

3. Mainstream Media

Mainstream Media operatives leverage the Representativeness Heuristic in their meme warfare by creating and disseminating memes that depict Bitcoin enthusiasts as untrustworthy, fringe elements of society, or as naive tech zealots. These caricatures are designed to be easily remembered and recognized, encouraging the public to associate Bitcoin with negative stereotypes. This misrepresentation influences how individuals judge the entire Bitcoin community, leading to misconceptions and biases based on a narrow, skewed portrayal.

4. Social Media Influencers

Social Media Influencers exploit the Affect Heuristic by generating memes that trigger strong emotional reactions, either for or against Bitcoin, depending on their allegiance. Pro-centralization influencers might create memes that evoke fear, uncertainty, and doubt about Bitcoin’s security and future, tapping into the audience’s emotions to shape their judgments and decisions. Conversely, they could also spread overly optimistic memes about centralized finance, glossing over its flaws. These emotionally charged memes bypass rational analysis, influencing perceptions and decisions based on feelings rather than facts.

5. Fictitious Grassroots Accounts (Astroturfing)

Operators behind Fictitious Grassroots Accounts (Astroturfing) use the Recognition Heuristic by creating memes that mimic the style and messaging of genuine community-generated content. They flood platforms with memes that subtly alter the narrative about Bitcoin, making their fabricated perspective appear as the most recognized and, therefore, the correct viewpoint. Through repeated exposure to these seemingly grassroots memes, the audience might begin to uncritically accept the astroturfed messages as legitimate community sentiment, misleading newcomers and shaking the convictions of the uninitiated.

By understanding the nuanced ways in which these operators employ heuristics through meme warfare, individuals can better navigate the complex landscape of information and misinformation surrounding Bitcoin, enhancing their ability to discern bias and manipulation.


In the battlefield of meme warfare, the deployment of heuristics by operators serves as a testament to the power of memes in shaping public discourse. As we’ve explored, each operator wields heuristics to craft narratives that sway opinions, forge allegiances, and, at times, sow division.

The insights learned from examining these tactics highlight an important lesson: in the age of rapid information exchange, our biases can be exploited to guide our decision making process and to that end, propagate a meme. This understanding equips us with the tools evaluate the information we consume and the memes we encounter daily. By recognizing the heuristics at play, we can shield ourselves from manipulation, and most importantly we can combat enemy heuristics tactics with countermeasures and plan offensive campaigns using heuristics.

Meme warfare for global monetary supremacy waged between Bitcoiners and our Malthusian opposition illustrates the broader challenges facing our society. As we develop strategy and plans, the lessons drawn from understanding heuristics in psychological operations and information warfare are invaluable. They remind us that in the struggle for the future of humanity, knowledge is not just power — it is also protection. By arming ourselves with awareness and critical thinking, we can ensure that in the war of memes and beyond, truth and reason prevail, and we can have fun along the way.

  1. This one wrecks me most in life. FML. ↩︎